Research Collected: February 2015

antibiotics, exercise benefits, nutritional deficiency and obesity, sauna benefits, gluten, tobacco smoking, hormone therapy and ovarian cancer, fluoride, thimerosal, sugar and hypertension

Uncovering effects of antibiotics on the host and microbiota using transkingdom gene networks (2015)

“We found that most antibiotic-induced alterations in the gut can be explained by three factors: depletion of the microbiota; direct effects of antibiotics on host tissues and the effects of remaining antibiotic-resistant microbes. Normal microbiota depletion mostly led to downregulation of different aspects of immunity. The two other factors (antibiotic direct effects on host tissues and antibiotic-resistant microbes) primarily inhibited mitochondrial gene expression and amounts of active mitochondria, increasing epithelial cell death.”

Physical activity and all-cause mortality across levels of overall and abdominal adiposity in European men and women: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study (EPIC) (2015)

“The hazards of all-cause mortality were reduced by 16–30% in moderately inactive individuals compared with those categorized as inactive in different strata of BMI and WC. Avoiding all inactivity would theoretically reduce all-cause mortality by 7.35%… Corresponding estimates for avoiding obesity (BMI >30) were 3.66%…”

An investigation into the relationship between age and physiological function in highly active older adults (2015)

“Despite extensive research, the relationship between age and physiological function remains poorly characterised and there are currently no reliable markers of human ageing… The results of this cross-sectional study suggest that even when many confounding variables are removed the relationship between function and healthy ageing is complex and likely to be highly individualistic and that physical activity levels must be taken into account in ageing studies.”

Comparison of Prevalence of Inadequate Nutrient Intake Based on Body Weight Status of Adults in the United States: An Analysis of NHANES 2001–2008 (2015)

“A substantial proportion of the adult population (over 40%) had inadequate intakes of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, calcium, and magnesium. Compared to normal weight adults, obese adults had about 5% to 12% lower… intakes of micronutrients and higher… prevalence of nutrient inadequacy.”

Association Between Sauna Bathing and Fatal Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality Events (2015)

“Increased frequency of sauna bathing is associated with a reduced risk of SCD, CHD, CVD, and all-cause mortality. Further studies are warranted to establish the potential mechanism that links sauna bathing and cardiovascular health.”

Small Amounts of Gluten in Subjects with Suspected Nonceliac Gluten Sensitivity: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Cross-Over Trial (2015)

“We enrolled 61 adults without celiac disease or wheat allergy who believe ingestion of gluten-containing food to be the cause of their intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms. Participants were randomly assigned to groups given either 4.375 g/day gluten or rice starch (placebo) for 1 week, each via gastro-soluble capsules… According to the per-protocol analysis of data from the 59 patients who completed the trial, intake of gluten significantly increased overall symptoms compared with placebo…”

Tobacco smoking and all-cause mortality in a large Australian cohort study: findings from a mature epidemic with current low smoking prevalence (2015)

“In Australia, up to two-thirds of deaths in current smokers can be attributed to smoking. Cessation reduces mortality compared with continuing to smoke, with cessation earlier in life resulting in greater reductions.”

Menopausal hormone use and ovarian cancer risk: individual participant meta-analysis of 52 epidemiological studies (2015)

“The increased risk may well be largely or wholly causal; if it is, women who use hormone therapy for 5 years from around age 50 years have about one extra ovarian cancer per 1000 users and, if its prognosis is typical, about one extra ovarian cancer death per 1700 users.”

Are fluoride levels in drinking water associated with hypothyroidism prevalence in England (2015)

“We found that higher levels of fluoride in drinking water provide a useful contribution for predicting prevalence of hypothyroidism. We found that practices located in the West Midlands (a wholly fluoridated area) are nearly twice as likely to report high hypothyroidism prevalence in comparison to Greater Manchester (non-fluoridated area).”

Thimerosal: Clinical, epidemiologic and biochemical studies (2015)

“The culmination of the research that examines the effects of Thimerosal in humans indicates that it is a poison at minute levels with a plethora of deleterious consequences, even at the levels currently administered in vaccines.”

  • Related: there is a wide-held belief in the US that Thimerserol is no longer used in vaccines, but the CDC says otherwise.

Allergy in Children in Hand Versus Machine Dishwashing (2015)

“In families who use hand dishwashing, allergic diseases in children are less common than in children from families who use machine dishwashing. We speculate that a less-efficient dishwashing method may induce tolerance via increased microbial exposure.”

The wrong white crystals: not salt but sugar as aetiological in hypertension and cardiometabolic disease (2014)

“It is time for guideline committees to shift focus away from salt and focus greater attention to the likely more-consequential food additive: sugar. A reduction in the intake of added sugars, particularly fructose, and specifically in the quantities and context of industrially-manufactured consumables, would help not only curb hypertension rates, but might also help address broader problems related to cardiometabolic disease.”

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