Foods that support phase II liver detoxification

The liver requires numerous nutrients for phase II detoxification. The liver is versatile, in that it does need all of these nutrients which makes it so humans can detoxify with a wide variety of diets. Still some foods seem especially important to the process of liver detoxification. Originally I had planned to write out the foods that supported each detoxification pathway but that proved difficult to read and digest. So I decided to reverse the presentation. Here are some foods to support various phase II liver detox pathways.

  • egg yolks
    • sulfation, mercapturation, acetylation
  • vegetables of the Allium genus (onions, garlic, leeks, shallots, chives, etc)
    • sulfation, mercapturation
  • vegetables of the Brassica olercea species (broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, kale)
    • sulfation, mercapturation
  • avocado
    • mercapturation, acetylation
  • beets, spinach, wheat bran, wheat germ
    • methylation
  • seafood
    • sulfation, acetylation
  • high quality organ and muscle meats
    • sulfation, methylation, peptide conjugation, mercapturation, acetylation
  • kombucha, jerusalem artichokes
    • glucuronidation

Here are the phase II liver detoxification pathways and their nutritional requirements:

  • Sulfation
    • molybdenum, sulfur compounds (cysteine, methionine, taurine, lipoic acid, alutathione, MSM)
  • Methylation
    • methyl donors (betaine, choline SAM/SAM-e, DMG, TMG, DMAE, methionine, folic acid (B9), methylcobalamin B12)
  • Glucuronidation
    • glucoronic acid
  • Peptide conjugation / Amino acid conjugation
    • glycine, taurine
  • Mercapturation / Glutathione conjugation
    • B6, Glutathione
  • Acetylation
    • acetyl-CoA, C, B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B5 (pantothenic acid)
  • Sulfoxidation
    • molybdenum

Further reading:

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